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Geography and Geology

Imagine a world of jagged snow-capped mountains, naturally occurring lakes and beautiful waterfalls; not to mention- green grassy valleys and old stone buildings that have stood for centuries.  If you’re wondering where in the world you can find all these wonderful natural and man-made creations; you need only load up your car and head to a little area in Northwest England called The Lake DistrictThe Lake District of England has for centuries been known as a great tourism destination; since first wrote about in early 16th Century; the masses have been drawn to the beauty and picturesque landscapes.  Today, the geography and geology of the area remains much unchanged from long ago- the creation of the National Park in 1951 helped maintain the area’s natural beauty; today- tourism throughout the Lake District is the main means of industry for this growing region.
The entire Lake District is comprised of over 800 square miles; much of which is included in the National Park
The namesake of the Lake District is attributed to the lakes that lay throughout the region.  Over 15,000 years ago, the ice glaciers of pre-historic times started to melt; leaving behind huge U-shaped valleys; now filled with water- making up the sixteen lakes that are included in the Lake District.  The smaller lakes, typically called tarns are also common in the area.  These tarns generally sit at the foothills of the fells or mountains that line the landscape.  The largest lake in all of England, as well as, the Lake District is known to all as WindermereWindermere is 10.5 miles long and over 1 mile wide.  The lake has a depth of 220 feet and is naturally fed by many rivers in the area.  The beautiful geography of Lake Windermere makes it a great lake for sailing and boating.  On any given summer day, you’re liable to see hundreds of sailboats, yachts, and steam vessels cruising up and down the WindermereUllswater is the second largest lake in the area; it stretches for nearly 7.5 miles.  The geography and geology of Ullswater resembles a dog-leg making its way in and out of the hills of the Lake District.  The ¾ mile wide lake stretches from Pooley Bridge at the north end to Glenridding at the south end.  Throughout the years, many have studied the deep lake known as Ullswater; the geography and geology of the lake allows for a great habitat for various fish and sea life.  Coniston Water is the third largest lake in the Lake District; there are three small islands that sit along Coniston Water; all are owned by the National Trust.  Unlike most of the lakes located in the Lake District; the lake known as Haweswater is the most easterly of the lakes and currently has no known settlements along its shores.  A concrete dam was started and built in the late 1920’s; this controversial dam stands 1550 wide and 120 feet high; this also raised the water level some 95 feet when full.  In studying the history, geography and geology of Haweswater- the building of the dam caused one village known as Mardale to be destroyed.  During droughts and low water levels; the remnants of the old town can still be seen. 
One cannot discuss the geography and geology of the Lake District without mentioning the rocky hills and fells that make their home in the Lake District.  There is much controversy over the exact number of hills and fells throughout the land- you see, the geography and geology of the land makes many of the fells appear to be one or the same.  But for the most part, geography and geology professionals believe there to be 214 total fells in the Lake District.  The largest of the fells stands 978 meters; it is known as the Scafell Pike.  Although, not considered a huge mountain for those that enjoy the sport of mountain climbing; it is rather treacherous and rocky- just as are the other fells throughout the area.  The easiest and perhaps less risqué fells of all those over 900 meters are in the Northern region of the Lake District; it is called the Skiddaw Fell.  The Skiddaw Fell stands nearly 931 meters and features many paths and trails to the summit.  One of the best fells in the Lake District lies to the west; the geography and geology of the fell known as Haystacks makes it a popular choice for visitors.  To the east lies one of the most beautiful sights a visitor will see, as well.  The fell known as Gowbarrow plays home to one of the Lake District’s most beautiful waterfalls.  If you’re looking for a geographical phenomenon and even tougher climb; you may want to visit the southern fell known as Dog Crag.  This 778 meter fell features jagged rock walls and drops of 600 feet.  Only the most qualified mountain climber need to attempt such a feat.  The central location of the fell known as High Raise allows for visitors to take in the views of lakes and hills for miles.  Many visitors prefer to journey up to the summit to take in the breath-taking landscape High Raise has to offer.  The geography and geology of the fell allows for most visitors a scenic view of the surrounding Lake District.
The geography and geology of the Lake District have long been part of its charm.  But for early settlers it was more of a way of life and livelihood.  The geology and geography of the land allowed for great amounts of copper, slate, limestone, and even granite to be excavated.  For hundreds of years, those living in or around the Lake District made their livings working the mines and selling the precious stones to neighboring countries.  The ports, railways, and geography of the land made it a thriving industry long ago.  With the opening of the National Park and the shutdown of the railroads; the mining operations ceased.  Today, the geography and geology of the land is a sacred and preserved thing of beauty.